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Peer-reviewed journalsBook chaptersConference proceedingsOther articlesPhD ThesisDiploma thesis

Peer-reviewed journals


D. Heile, R. Olbrich, M. Reichling, and P. Rahe: Modeling nanoscale charge measurements
Physical Review B, 108, 085420 (2023) DOI


J. Heggemann, S. Aeschlimann, T. Dickbreder, Y. S. Ranawat, R. Bechstein, A. Kühnle, A. S. Foster, and P. Rahe: Water adsorption lifts the (2 × 1) reconstruction of calcite(104)
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Advance Article (2023) DOI


A. Allen, M. A. Rashid, P. Rahe, S. P. Jarvis, J. N. O’Shea, J. L. Dunn, and P. Moriarty: Self-assembly and tiling of a prochiral hydrogen-bonded network: bi-isonicotinic acid on coinage metal surfaces
Molecular Physics, e2192824 (2023) DOI


J. Heggemann, Y. S. Ranawat, O. Krejčí, A. S. Foster, P. Rahe : Differences in Molecular Adsorption Emanating from the (2 × 1) Reconstruction of Calcite(104)
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 14, 1983 (2023) DOI


C. Schiel, P. Rahe, P. Maass : On the Possibility of Exploring Tip-Molecule Interactions with STM Experiments
Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 169, 096515 (2022) DOI


P. Rahe, D. Heile, R. Olbrich, M. Reichling : Quantitative dynamic force microscopy with inclined tip oscillation
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 13, 610 (2022) DOI


S. P. Jarvis, H. Sang, F. Junqueira, O. Gordon, J. E. A. Hodgkinson, A. Saywell, P. Rahe, S. Mamone, S. Taylor, A. Sweetman, J. Leaf, D. A. Duncan, T.-L. Lee, P. K. Thakur, G. Hoffman, R. J. Whitby, M. H. Levitt, G. Held, L. Kantorovich, P. Moriarty, R. G. Jones : Chemical shielding of H2O and HF encapsulated inside a C60 cage
communications chemistry, 4, 135 (2021) DOI


J. Heggemann, L. Laflör and P. Rahe: Double sample holder for efficient high-resolution studies of an insulator and a metal surface
Review of Scientific Instruments, 92, 053705 (2021) DOI


D. Heile*, R. Olbrich*, M. Reichling and P. Rahe: Alignment method for the accurate and precise quantification of tip-surface forces
Physical Review B, 103, 075409 (2021) DOI


P. Rahe: PTCDA adsorption on CaF2 thin films
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 11, 1615 (2020) DOI
This article is part of the thematic issue "Molecular assemblies on surfaces – towards physical and electronic decoupling of organic molecules".


L. Laflör, M. Reichling and P. Rahe: Protruding hydrogen atoms as markers for the molecular orientation of a metallocene Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 11, 1432 (2020) DOI


T. Hafshejani, W. Wang, J. Heggemann, A. Nefedov, Y. Wang, P. Rahe, P. Thissen, S. Heissler and C. Wöll: CO adsorption on the calcite (10.4) surface: A combined experimental and theoretical study Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, advance article (2020) DOI


L. Laflör, F. A. Schlage, L. Kantorovich, P. J. Moriarty, M. Reichling, P. Rahe: Quadruped Molecular Anchoring to an Insulator: Functionalized Ferrocene on CaF2 Bulk and Thin Film Surfaces The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 124, 9900 (2020) DOI


P. Rahe, E. F. Smith, J. Wollschläger and P. J. Moriarty: Formation routes and structural details of the CaF1 layer on Si(111) from high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy data Physical Review B, 97, 125418 (2018) DOI


M. Møller, S. P. Jarvis, L. Guérinet, P. Sharp, R. Woolley, P. Rahe, and P. Moriarty: Automated extraction of single H atoms with STM: tip state dependency Nanotechnology, 28, 075302 (2017) DOI


J. Lübbe, M. Temmen, P. Rahe, and M. Reichling: Noise in NC-AFM measurements with significant tip–sample interaction. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 7, 1885 (2016) DOI


M. Einax, T. Richter, M. Nimmrich, P. Rahe, I. G. Stará, I. Starý, A. Kühnle, and P. Maass: Growth kinetics of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid nanowires on calcite (104). The Journal of Chemical Physics, 145, 134702 (2016) DOI


A. Saywell, A.S. Browning, P. Rahe, H.L. Anderson, P.H. Beton: Organisation and ordering of 1D porphyrin polymers synthesised by on-surface Glaser coupling. Chemical Communications, 42, 10342 (2016) DOI


A. Sweetman, J. Stirling, S.P. Jarvis, P. Rahe, P. Moriarty: Measuring the reactivity of a silicon-terminated probe. Physical Review B, 94, 115440 (2016) DOI


A. Sweetman, M.A. Rashid, S.P. Jarvis, J.L. Dunn, P. Rahe, P. Moriarty: Visualizing the orientational dependence of an intermolecular potential. Nature Communications 7, 10621 (2016) DOI


H. Söngen, P. Rahe, J.L. Neff, R. Bechstein, A. Kühnle: The weight function for charges – A rigorous theoretical concept for Kelvin probe force microscopy. Journal of Applied Physics 119, 052304 (2016) DOI


K. Ambal, P. Rahe, A. Payne, J. Slinkman, C.C. Williams, C. Boehme: Electrical current through individual pairs of phosphorus donor atoms and silicon dangling bonds. Scientific Reports 6, 18531 (2016) DOI


P. Rahe, R.P. Steele, C.C. Williams: Consecutive Charging of a Molecule-on-Insulator Ensemble Using Single Electron Tunnelling Methods. Nano Letters 16, 911 (2016) DOI


S. Hahne, P. Rahe, P. Maass: Determination of diffusion tensors from oscillating and circulating scanning probe tips. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 110, 66003 (2015) DOI


J.L. Neff, P. Rahe: Insights into Kelvin probe force microscopy data of insulator-supported molecules. Physical Review B 91, 085424 (2015) DOI


S. Kuhn, M. Kittelmann, Y. Sugimoto, M. Abe, A. Kühnle, P. Rahe: Identifying the absolute orientation of a low-symmetry surface in real space. Physical Review B 90, 195405 (2014) DOI


A. Sweetman, S.P. Jarvis, P. Rahe, N.R. Champness, L. Kantorovich, P. Moriarty: Intramolecular bonds resolved on a semiconductor surface. Physical Review B 90, 165425 (2014) DOI


S. Kuhn, P. Rahe: Discriminating short-range from van der Waals forces using total force data in noncontact atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B 89, 235417 (2014) DOI


S. Rode, M. Schreiber, A. Kühnle, P. Rahe: Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode. Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 043707 (2014) DOI


A. Sweetman, P. Rahe, P. Moriarty: Unique Determination of "Subatomic" Contrast by Imaging Covalent Backbonding. Nano Letters 14, 2265 (2014) DOI


A.M. Sweetman, S.P. Jarvis, H. Sang, I. Lekkas, P. Rahe, Y .Wang, J. Wang, N.R. Champness, L. Kantorovich, P. Moriarty: Mapping the force field of a hydrogen-bonded assembly. Nature Communications 5, 3931 (2014) DOI


R. Lindner, P. Rahe, M. Kittelmann, A. Gourdon, R. Bechstein, A. Kühnle: Substrate Templating Guides the Photoinduced Reaction of C60 on Calcite. Angewandte Chemie Int. Edition 53, 7952 (2014) DOI


M. Kittelmann, M. Nimmrich, J. Neff, P. Rahe, W. Gren, X. Bouju, A. Gourdon, A. Kühnle: Controlled Activation of Substrate Templating in Molecular Self-Assembly by Deprotonation. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 17, 23868 (2013) DOI


P. Rahe, M. Kittelmann, J. L. Neff, M. Nimmrich, M. Reichling, P. Maass, A. Kühnle: Tuning molecular self-assembly on bulk insulator surfaces by anchoring of the organic building block. Advanced Materials, 25, 3948 (2013) DOI


C. Hauke, R. Bechstein, M. Kittelmann, C. Storz, A. Kilbinger, P. Rahe, A. Kühnle: Controlling molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface by rationally designing an efficient anchor functionality that maintains structural flexibility. ACS Nano 7, 5491 (2013) DOI


J. Lübbe, M. Temmen, P. Rahe, A. Kühnle, M. Reichling: Determining cantilever stiffness from thermal noise. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 4, 227 (2013) DOI


J. Lübbe, M. Temmen, S. Rode, P. Rahe, A. Kühnle, M. Reichling: Thermal noise limit for ultra-high vacuum non-contact atomic force microscopy. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 4, 32 (2013) DOI


P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich, A. Kühnle: Substrate templating upon self-assembly of hydrogen-bonded molecular networks on an insulating surface. small 8, 2969 (2012) DOI


M. Kittelmann, P. Rahe, A. Kühnle: Molecular self-assembly on an insulating surface: Interplay between substrate templating and intermolecular interactions. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 24, 354007 (2012) DOI


M. Kittelmann, P. Rahe, A. Gourdon, A. Kühnle: Direct Visualization of Molecule Deprotonation on an Insulating Surface. ACS Nano 6, 7406 (2012) DOI


P. Rahe, J. Schütte, A. Kühnle: NC-AFM contrast formation on the calcite(10-14) surface. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 24, 084006 (2012) DOI


P. Rahe, R. Lindner, M. Kittelmann, M. Nimmrich, A. Kühnle: From dewetting to wetting molecular layers: C60 on CaCO3(10-14) as a case study. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14, 6537 (2012) DOI


C.M. Hauke, P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich, J. Schütte, M. Kittelmann, I.G. Stará, I. Starý, J. Rybáček, A. Kühnle: Molecular Self-Assembly of Enantiopure Heptahelicene-2-Carboxylic Acid on calcite(10-14). Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, 4637 (2012) DOI


M. Nimmrich, M. Kittelmann, P. Rahe, W. Harneit, A. J. Mayne, G. Dujardin, A. Kühnle: Influence of charge transfer doping on the morphologies of C60 islands on hydrogenated diamond C(100)-(2x1). Physical Review B 85, 035420 (2012) DOI


M. Kittelmann, P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich, C. M. Hauke, A. Gourdon, A. Kühnle: On-Surface Covalent Linking of Organic Building Blocks on a Bulk Insulator. ACS Nano 5, 8420 (2011) DOI


P. Rahe, J. Schütte, W. Schniederberend, M. Reichling, M. Abe, Y. Sugimoto, A. Kühnle: Flexible drift-compensation system for precise 3D force mapping in severe drift environments. Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 063704 (2011) DOI


J. Schütte, R. Bechstein, P. Rahe, H. Langhals, M. Rohlfing, A. Kühnle: Single-molecule switching with non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology 22, 245701 (2011) DOI


J. Rybáček, G. Huerta-Angeles, A. Kollárovič, I.G. Stará, I. Starý, P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich and A. Kühnle: Racemic and Optically Pure Heptahelicene-2-carboxylic Acid: Its Synthesis and Self-Assembly into Nanowire-like Aggregates. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 5, 853 (2010) DOI


A. Greuling, P. Rahe, M. Kaczmarski, A. Kühnle and M. Rohlfing: Combined NC-AFM and DFT study of the adsorption geometry of trimesic acid on rutile TiO2(110). Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 22, 345008 (2010) DOI


J. Schütte, P. Rahe, L. Tröger, S. Rode, R. Bechstein, M. Reichling, and A. Kühnle: Clear signature of the (2x1) reconstruction of calcite(10-14). Langmuir 26, 8295 (2010) DOI


P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, and A. Kühnle: Vertical and lateral drift correction of SPM images. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 28, C4E31 (2010) DOI


M. Nimmrich, M. Kittelmann, P. Rahe, A. v. Schmidsfeld, M. Reichling, W. Harneit, and A. Kühnle: Atomic-resolution imaging of clean and hydrogen-terminated C(100)-(2x1) diamond surfaces using non-contact AFM. Physical Review B 81, 201403(R) (2010) DOI


P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich, A. Greuling, J. Schütte, I.G. Stará, J. Rybáček, G. Huerta-Angeles, I. Starý, M. Rohlfing, and A. Kühnle: Toward Molecular Nanowires Self-Assembled on an Insulating Substrate: Heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on calcite(10-14). Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114, 1547 (2010) DOI


P. Rahe, M. Nimmrich, A. Nefedov, M. Naboka, Ch. Wöll, and A. Kühnle: Transition of Molecule Orientation during Adsorption of Terephthalic Acid on Rutile TiO2(110). Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, 17471 (2009) DOI


F. Loske, P. Rahe, and A. Kühnle: Contrast inversion in non-contact atomic force microscopy imaging of C60 molecules. Nanotechnology 20, 264010 (2009) DOI


J. Schütte, R. Bechstein, P. Rahe, M. Rohlfing, H. Langhals, and A. Kühnle: Imaging perylene derivatives on rutile TiO2(110) by noncontact atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B 79, 045428 (2009) DOI


P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, J. Schütte, F. Ostendorf, and A. Kühnle: Repulsive interaction and contrast inversion in noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of adsorbates. Physical Review B 77, 195410 (2008) DOI

Book chapters


P. Rahe, H. Söngen: Imaging Static Charge Distributions: A Comprehensive KPFM Theory. In: Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: From Single Charge Detection to Device Characterization, Eds. Sadewasser, S.; Glatzel, T., Springer International Publishing (2018). Link


H. Söngen, P. Rahe, R. Bechstein, A. Kühnle: Interpretation of KPFM Data with the Weight Function for Charges. In: Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: From Single Charge Detection to Device Characterization, Eds. Sadewasser, S.; Glatzel, T., Springer International Publishing (2018). Link


P. Rahe, A. Kühnle: On-Surface Synthesis on the (10.4) Surface of the Bulk Insulator Calcite. In: Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry, Ed. Wandelt, K., Elsevier (2018). Link


F. Kling, R. Bechstein, P. Rahe, A. Kühnle: Self-assembly of Organic Molecules on Insulating Surfaces. In: Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Volume 3, Eds. Morita, S.;Giessibl, F.J.; Meyer, E.; Wiesendanger, R., Springer International Publishing (2015). Link

Conference Proceedings


D. Heitkamp, J. Lorenz, M. Koall, P. Rahe, and P. Lensing: An Immersive Feedback Framework for Scanning Probe Microscopy
Proceedings of the 18th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - GRAPP, 179 (2023) DOI

Other articles


P. Rahe, S. Kuhn, A. Kühnle: Is Calcite (1014) a Chiral Surface? Journal of Unresolved Questions 3, 21 (2013) Link


M. Nimmrich, P. Rahe, M. Kittelmann, A. Kühnle: Organisch geordnet. Physik Journal 11 (12), 29 (2012) Link

PhD Thesis

P. Rahe: The Calcite(10-14) Surface: A Versatile Substrate for Molecular Self-Assembly. Dissertation, Universität Mainz (2011) UB Mainz   Amazon

Diploma Thesis

P. Rahe: Adsorptionseigenschaften von organischen Molekülen auf Titandioxid untersucht mit hochauflösender Rasterkraftmikroskopie. Diplomarbeit, Universität Osnabrück (2008)